Welcome to QCircuits’s documentation

Repository at github.com/grey-area/qcircuits.


QCircuits is a lightweight Python package for simulating the operation of small-scale quantum computers, based on the quantum circuit model. It uses type (d, 0) and type (d, d) tensors to represent state vectors for and operators on d-qubit systems, rather than using straight vectors and matrices produced by Kronecker products, as is more typical.

Documentation, tutorial, and examples


Install with pip:

pip install qcircuits

or from the source at github.com/grey-area/qcircuits.

Example usage

See the examples page for more examples.

Quantum teleportation example:

Quantum circuit:



import qcircuits as qc

# Quantum Teleportation: transmitting two classical bits to transport a qubit state
# Alice has a qubit in a given quantum state.
# Alice and Bob have previously prepared a Bell state, and have since
# physically separated the qubits.
# Alice manipulates her hidden qubit and her half of the Bell state, and then
# measures both qubits.
# She sends the result (two classical bits) to Bob, who is able to reconstruct
# Alice's state by applying operators based on the measurement outcomes.

def quantum_teleportation(alice_state):
    # Get operators we will need
    CNOT = qc.CNOT()
    H = qc.Hadamard()
    X = qc.PauliX()
    Z = qc.PauliZ()

    # The prepared, shared Bell state
    bell = qc.bell_state(0, 0)
    # The whole state vector
    phi = alice_state * bell

    # Apply CNOT and Hadamard gate
    phi = CNOT(phi, qubit_indices=[0, 1])
    phi = H(phi, qubit_indices=[0])

    # Measure the first two bits
    # The only uncollapsed part of the state vector is Bob's
    M1, M2 = phi.measure(qubit_indices=[0, 1], remove=True)

    # Apply X and/or Z gates to third qubit depending on measurements
    if M2:
        phi = X(phi)
    if M1:
        phi = Z(phi)

    return phi

if __name__ == '__main__':
    # Alice's original state to be teleported to Bob
    alice = qc.qubit(theta=1.5, phi=0.5, global_phase=0.2)

    # Bob's state after quantum teleportation
    bob = quantum_teleportation(alice)

    print('Original state:', alice)
    print('\nTeleported state:', bob)